Budo practice for post-stroke patients ? reflections on historical and

Kantaro Matsui1, Agneta Larsson2, Yoshimi Yamahira1, Annika Näslund2
1 International Budo University, Japan
2 Lule? University of Technology, Sweden

Background and Study Aim. While many persons who participate in Budo-based rehabilitation profess improvements in functional ability, and self efficacy  in daily life, it has been extremely difficult to collect quantitative scientific data on the effectiveness of Budo-based rehabilitation. This  difficulty is due in part to the wide variety of disabilities. The aim of this present study, therefore, is the scientific data on the effects of Budo rehabilitation targeting post-stroke patients.
Material and Methods. The six post-stroke patients were subjected to a period of 4-months Budo practice. Participant data was measured according  to Single Subject Experimental Design guidelines. The following tests were used to gather data: 5 repetitions of the sit-to-stand test, 6 meter  timed walk test, and Test of Dynamic standing balance. Data was also collected through interviews and self-report regarding: fear of falling  and general health.
Results. Data showed that post-stroke patients experienced improved muscle strength, balance, postural control, walking ability and  performance of daily activities as a result of the Budo-based rehabilitation in this experiment. Patient self-reporting revealed a reduced fear of  falling and indications of a healthier self-image as a result of Budo practice. Patient interviews suggest that the sociality and culture of Budo  had a powerfully positive psychological effect aiding the rehabilitative process.
Conclusion. Data clearly showed that Budo-based rehabilitation effectively delivered general quantitative improvements as reported by post-stroke patients. Not only could the patients perform daily-life tasks better, they exhibited less fear, more self-efficacy, and a healthier self-image.
Key words: jodo ? judo ? karate/karatedo ? kendo ? person who with disabilities/the disabled ? physiotherapy/physical therapy/PT ? SSED/Single  Subject Experimental Design

Published online: 17 September 2015
Copyright: ? 2015 the Authors. Published by Archives of Budo
Contributors: Kantaro Matsui, Agneta Larsson, Annika Näslund conceived the study design. Kantaro Matsui, Agneta Larsson, Annika Näslund collected the data. Agneta Larsson, Annika Näslund analysed the data. Kantaro Matsui, Agneta Larsson, Yoshimi Yamahira, Annika Näslund prepared the manuscript. Agneta Larsson, Annika Näslund secured the funding.
Funding: None
Conflict of interest: Authors have declared that no competing interest exists
Ethical approval: approved by the Local Ethical Committee
Provenance and peer review: Under responsibility of HMA Congress
Corresponding author: Kantaro Matsui, Department of Physical Education, International Budo University, 841 Shinkan Katsuura city Chiba,  Japan; e-mail: kantaro[at]budo-u.ac.jp
Open Access License: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial 4.0  International (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the