Comparison of body hydration status before and after training in male rugby seven players in cool and warm environment

Inese Pontaga, Lilita Voitkevica , Jekaterina Liepina

Latvian Academy of Sports Education, Riga, Latvia

Background and Study Aim. The impact of natural alternation of seasons on hydration status in athletes is not known, but it is a factor influencing efficiency of the training. The aim of our investigation was to compare pre- and post- training body hydration status, a body mass (BM) changes and sweating rate in male rugby seven players in early spring and summer.
Material and Methods. Twenty four male rugby seven players participated: 13 players in March (air temperature: +4°C, humidity 65%), 13- in June (air temperature: +19°C, humidity 70%). The pre- and post-training urine samples were collected. Players with urine specific gravity (USG) ?1.020 were ?euhydrated?, with USG 1.021-1.030 ?hypohydrated?, with USG >1.030 ?seriously hypohydrated?. Sweating intensity was calculated from the BM changes, consumed water mass, urine volume and the duration of training.
Results. The mean pre-training USG in cool environment was in norm: 1.019?0.008, but in warm conditions exceeded the boundary of norm: 1.021?0.005. The mean USG after training indicated similar hypohydration in spring and summer. The mean BM did not significantly decreased after training in cool and warm environment. Decrease of the BM >2% was observed in two athletes and for 1.5-2 % in six players only in cool conditions.
Conclusion. Fluid consumption in cool conditions was insufficient in preventing the body hydration status worsening and a decrease in BM for more than 1.5-2% in some players. The fluid consumption in warm environment better allows prevent the body hypohydration and keep the BM decrease below 1.5%.
Key words: rugby seven ? sweating intensity ? urine specific gravity

Published online: 17 September 2015
Copyright: ? 2015 the Authors. Published by Archives of Budo
Contributors: Inese Pontaga, Lilita Voitkevica conceived the study design. Inese Pontaga, Lilita Voitkevica, Liepi?a Jekaterina collected the data. Inese Pontaga, Lilita Voitkevica analysed the data. Inese Pontaga, Lilita Voitkevica, Liepi?a Jekaterina prepared the manuscript. Inese Pontaga Klimczak secured the funding.
Funding: This research has been supported by the European Social Fund within the project ?Support for Sport Science? No. 2009/0155/1DP/ action programme ?Human resources and Employment? sub-activity ?Support for Doctoral Study Programme Implementation?, and by institutional research funding IUT 20-58 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research.
Conflict of interest: Authors have declared that no competing interest exists
Ethical approval: The experiments reported in the article were undertaken in compliance with the current laws of the Latvia. The study was performed in accordance with the standards of the Ethics Committee of the Latvian Council of Sciences.
Provenance and peer review: Under responsibility of HMA Congress
Corresponding author: Inese Pontaga, Department of Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry and Hygiene, Latvian Academy of Sports Education, Brivibas Street 333, Riga, LV 1006, Latvia; e-mail: inese.pontaga[at]
Open Access License: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial 4.0 International (, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license