Jacek Wąsik, Dorota Ortenburger, Tomasz Góra
Institute of Physical Education, Tourism and Physiotherapy, University of Czestochowa, Poland
Background and Study Aim. There are data revealing that effective dealing with anger, frustration and irritation has an adaptive meaning. In the light of literature, the dominance of these feelings is connected with a long-lasting stimulation of a sympathetic system. Due to many researchers, experiencing severe anger and fury is a skew in perception that exaggerates the negative qualities of things.
The main aims of the study was: 1) the methods of dealing with anger among adolescents and adults who practice taekwondo and 2) the dependencies between dealing with anger, age and the level of advancement in taekwondo.
Material and Method. Group: The sample group was composed of 70 people who practice taekwondo, average age 21.34 (age range: 10-45 years), median 17, standard deviation 9.82. Research tools: Questionnaires used in psychology and health promotion were applied in the research (Novaco Anger Scale and Anger Expression). Sufficient psychometric value is attributed to them. Data were also collected by means of an independently developed survey. Statistical analysis: Due to the fact that the obtained data are of a self-descriptive character (they derive from surveys and questionnaires), the analysis was performed with the application of the methods that are recommended for proceeding ?non-acute?, imprecise data that frequently appear in the humanities, health science and economics. Explorative techniques that aim at identifying subgroups within multidimensional data collection were applied. Among others, cluster analysis with the use of k-means clustering was done. Thanks to the above, clusters, that possibly differ from one another, were identified (minimizing variations inside clusters- maximizing between clusters).
Results. Data concerning expression of experienced anger i.e. targeting anger ? to inside and outside (suppressing/extinguishing and revealing anger) were obtained. The information refers to general situations and reactions that are usually revealed, typical for a particular person. The second type of the obtained data covers information about intensification of experienced negative feelings in typical situations- from very little irritated, though little irritated and moderately upset, to very angry. In the sample group clusters were identified on the basis of F values and levels of relevancy. The practitioners that characterize of a higher level of advancement can tackle anger to a higher degree. They possess a wider spectrum of reactions in the situations that provoke crossness, irritation and anger.
Conclusion. Through practicing taekwondo a mental factor is increased. Self-control, self-assurance and the ability of maintaining the balance between manifesting and controlling anger are increased.
Key words: psychometric value ? self-control ? self-assurance ? dealing with anger ? level of advancement ? age.
Published online: 17 September 2015
Copyright: ? 2015 the Authors. Published by Archives of Budo
Contributors: Jacek Wasik, Dorota Ortenburger, Tomasz Góra conceived the study design. Jacek Wasik, Dorota Ortenburger, Tomasz Góra collected the data. Jacek Wasik, Dorota Ortenburger, Tomasz Góra analysed the data. Jacek Wasik, Dorota Ortenburger, Tomasz Góra prepared the manuscript. Jacek Wasik, Dorota Ortenburger, Tomasz Góra secured the funding.
Funding: Departmental sources.
Conflict of interest: Authors have declared that no competing interest exists
Ethical approval: Not required
Provenance and peer review: Under responsibility of HMA Congress
Corresponding author: Jacek Wąsik, Institute of Physical Education, Tourism and Physiotherapy, Jan Długosz University of Częstochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15; 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland; e-mail: jwasik[at]konto.pl
Open Access License: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial 4.0 International (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license