Hapkido: Korean martial art

Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień1, Rafał Przybycień2,3, Sam Plumb4

1Department of Gymnastics and Dance, Institute of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland
2Zespół Szkół Społecznych nr 7 STO ks. prof. Józefa Tischnera in Cracow, Poland
3Hapkido Moo Hak Kwan in Poland, European Hapkido Alliance
4President of European Hapkido Alliance, England

Background & Study Aim. Hapkido is Korean martial art. A conditioning and development of coordination motor abilities are valuable for citizens  in the contemporary society. The aim of our short communication is related to effects of hapkido training on motivation and some aspects of  coordination motor abilities in participants. We would like present hapkido as a physical activity which can be trained as an alternative syllabus  in physical education at preliminary school.
Material and Methods: Some original research findings about incentives in study 1 [1] and effects of hapkido training on our pupils in study 2 [2]  were synthesized. The syllabus of hapkido for students of preliminary school is shortly characterized [3].
Results: Study 1. Health in the hierarchy of incentives of persons who train hapkido [1]  The purpose of this study was to determine the motivation of persons practicing hapkido as well as the importance for them to maintain health and to improve their age and gender related physical fitness. The survey was conducted among 60 persons, including 21 girls and women as well as 39 boys and men. Due to a wide range variability of the subjects? ages, they were divided into three categories: the younger ? to 13 years (n = 33); adolescent ? between 13 -18 years (n = 17); and older one ? above 18 years of age (n = 10).
The questionnaire of motivation that was used [4] consisted of 27 questions concerning nine motives, why those children, youngsters and adults engaged in physical activities. The tested normality of distribution was taken into account during the statistical study as well as  the mean values and measures of variation were computed and compared for every motivational factor in those age groups. The following  conclusions were drawn: 1) Attainment of fitness and good health were the strongest incentive regardless of the age and gender of the  people who trained hapkido, 2) The gender of the persons practicing hapkido did not bear on the hierarchy and intensity of motives, 3)  The motivation of the people who practiced hapkido depended essentially on age. The factors related to extrinsic success, intrinsic success  and ambition for power and domination were higher in the youngest group.
Study 2. Effectiveness of exercises used during Hapkido recreational and sport camp [2]
We have assumed that the training methods applied at the two-week hapkido camp for boys should cause beneficial changes regarding body adaptation to effort as well as coordination and motor skills. The participants of the sports and recreation hapkido camp have taken
part in the physical activity programme which included: hiking, general physical exercises as well as agility and acrobatic techniques,  games and recreation activities both on land and water, self-defence exercises in pairs (techniques required for the yellow, green, blue  and  black belt according to European Hapkido Alliance), formal hapkido techniques performed individually and in groups.
Body height in the examined group (n = 25) was very different (ranging from 137 to 190.5cm, the average height was 160.3cm), which
was connected with the boys? ages (9-16, the average age was 13). Therefore, the campers were divided into two age groups i.e. 9-12
year-olds and 13-16 year-olds (there were only two 16-year-old boys). Every day during the morning training, which lasted for about 30
min., bong hyung stick forms were mostly performed.
During the camp (on the second and the thirteenth day) we carried out the examination that included: measuring of body weight (electronic
scale) and height (anthropometer), Ruffier-Dikson (RD) test, which involves performing 30 knee bendings in 45 s (heart rate was
measured before, just after the effort and after 1 min. break (Polar, Finland) and computer tests evaluating coordination skills [5]. After
the results had been standardized, the individual profiles were worked out. A t-Student test for paired variables was then applied to evaluate
the statistical significance of differences (p<0.05) between the results of the measurements at the beginning and at the end of the camp.
The results at the beginning of the camp showed that seven students had poor physical efficiency, sixteen ? average and two ? good. There
were no substantial statistical changes neither in the body weight nor in the RD rate of adopting to effort. In some cases, however, increase
and in some cases decrease in body weight and the above mentioned RD rate was noticed. These results are likely to be connected with
the different levels of commitment to trainings at the camp. Comparison of the average results of the computer tests evaluating different
aspects of coordination, which were carried out at the beginning and at the end of the camp, showed that there were significant betterment
in orientation in space as well as in the ability to divide attention. The performed exercises had actually the biggest influence on the
increase of the students? ability to divide attention (t = ?10.985; p<0.001). However, we have not noticed any significant changes in simple
reaction time, complex reaction time or sense of direction (p<0.05).The hypothesis about the increase of body adaptation to endurance
effort has not been completely proved (because of too short time). In conclusion, what has been acknowledged is that attending a
well-organized hapkido camp for boys in their growth period brought beneficial changes in coordination and motor skills.
Hapkido martial art as an alternative for conventional physical and health education, and sport in schools
In our country, alternative forms of physical education in schools are gaining more attention, which is proved by the author?s program
of physical education teaching based on hapkido martial art approved by the Ministry of Education and Sport [3]. The results of another
investigation constitute additional argument for health professionals, who should be aware that there are certain alternative methods to
traditional exercise which can increase physical fitness and health of the middle-aged population [6].
In the final remark we would like to state, that a construct Hap ? coordination, Ki ? internal energy and Do ? moral way is a good prophylactic mean for people who present sedentary style of life. The knowledge summarized here can be useful during Health by Martial Arts Gala Congress Gala under the World Congress on Health and Martial Arts in Interdisciplinary Approach in which our Hapkido Demonstration Team gave show of their unique skills (please see Figs.1-10, Piotr Feczko with permission, and Figs. 11-13 from archives of European Hapkido Alliance).
Key words: education ? health ? motivation ? motor abilities ? self-defence

Published online: 17 September 2015
Copyright: ? 2015 the Authors. Published by Archives of Budo
Contributors: Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Rafał Przybycień, Sam Plumb conceived the study design. Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień,  Rafał Przybycień collected the data. Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Rafał Przybycień analysed the data. Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień,  Rafał Przybycień, Sam Plumb prepared the manuscript. Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Rafał Przybycień, Sam Plumb secured the funding
Funding: Departmental sources
Conflict of interest: Authors have declared that no competing interest exists
Ethical approval: Not required
Provenance and peer review: Under responsibility of HMA Congress
Corresponding author: Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Department of Gymnastics and Dance, Institute of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University School of Physical Education in Cracow, Al. Jana Pawla II 78, 31-571 Krakow, Poland; e-mail: hapki77[at]poczta.onet.pl
Open Access License: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial 4.0  International (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the  original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license