Influence of aikido exercises on mobility of hip joints in children

Andrzej Mroczkowski
Physical Education Departament at Zielona Góra University, Poland

Background and Study Aim. From biomechanical point of view adequate action on muscles responsible for mobility of hip joints can bring about changes in muscles affecting position of pelvis. Pelvis, on the other hand, as a link in a biokinematic chain can cause changes in the position of spine, especially in its lumbar section. The purpose of the present article was the knowledge about the effect of the selected aikido
exercises on the angle of hip joint rotation in the transverse plane.
Material and Methods. The experiment involved 107 boys from 7 to 10 years of age, pupils of the 1st-4th grade of primary school. They were divided into two groups, namely the experimental E one and control C0. The E group consisted of 66 pupils and C0 of 41 boys. The research groups comprised boys exhibiting scoliosis of first degree according to Gruca, as well as boys with threatening scoliosis due to a slanting pelvis
position in frontal plane. The measurements of hip joint mobility in the transverse plane were taken with Posturometre- S. The angle of internal and external rotation was determined. In the C0 group there were children who had never participated in any corrective gymnastics classes, but only attended sports
classes prescribed by the curriculum. The children from the control E group performed the selected aikido exercises. The measurements were taken three times during the school year.
Results. In the experimental group the increases of internal and external rotation of hip joints were bigger than in the control group. The results of the total angle of rotation in the left and right hip joint obtained in the third test differed statistically between the groups. A statistical difference between
the groups concerning the results obtained for the angle of internal rotation in the left hip joint was also found in the second and third test.
Conclusions. Aikido exercises applied increased the range of the angle of rotation of hip joints in the transverse plane.
Key words: hip joint ? scoliosis ? pelvis ? aikido ? martial arts

Published online: 17 September 2015
Copyright: ? 2015 the Author. Published by Archives of Budo
Contributors: Andrzej Mroczkowski conceived the study design, collected and analysed the data.
Prepared the manuscript and secured the funding.
Funding: The study was conducted within the research project Academy of Physical Education in Katowice: ?Reducing vulnerability to body injuries during the fall of people categorized as group being at high risk of losing balance and falling ? (Resolution No. 04/2013 Bioethics Committee at the Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland)
Conflict of interest: Author has declared that no competing interest exists
Ethical approval: Not required.
Provenance and peer review: Under responsibility of HMA Congress
Corresponding author: Andrzej Mroczkowski, Physical Education Departament at Zielona Góra University, Wyspiańskiego 58 Str., 65-178 Zielona Góra, Poland; e-mail: a.mroczkowski[at]
Open Access License: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial 4.0 International (, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license