Zbigniew Bujak, Dariusz Gierczuk, Mirosław Zalech
University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Branch in Biała Podlaska, Poland
Background and Study Aim. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and rates of injuries during the martial arts, self-defense and combat sports competitions on the example of two types of taekwon-do: ITF and WTF.
Materials and Methods. Different kinds of sports competitions in which 4000 competitors participated and were exposed to injuries, have been examined. The records of 15 medical reports from ITF competitions in Poland and scientific studies (taekwondo WTF) have been used in this research. The rate of injuries was calculated by means of the following formula: # of injuries / # of athletes exposed to injury x 1000 = # of injuries per 1000 athletes exposed to injury (A-E).
Results. The average rate of injuries during ITF taekwon-do competitions was 111.6/1000 A-E (95%CI 91.8-131.3), however, for WTF it was (men and women) 82.8/1000 A-E (95%CI 76.3-89.3) and 87.0/1000 A-E (95%CI 76.8-97.2). A bigger number of injuries occurred during ITF junior competitions 117.7/1000 A-E (95%CI 106.6-128.8). When compared to other sports disciplines, the injuries rates in both taekwon-do styles were on an average level.
Conclusions. The age and the level of influence on the number of injuries during competitions, however, the power of punches and kicks limited by competition regulations does not decide about the rate of injuries. There is no homogenous method of recording and assessment of injuries in martial arts and combat sports.
Key words: Rates of injuries ? ITF taekwon-do ? WTF taekwondo
Published online: 17 September 2015
Copyright: ? 2015 the Authors. Published by Archives of Budo
Contributors: Zbigniew Bujak, Dariusz Gierczuk, Mirosław Zalech conceived the study design. Zbigniew Bujak, Dariusz Gierczuk, Mirosław Zalech collected the data. Zbigniew Bujak, Dariusz Gierczuk, Mirosław Zalech analysed the data. Zbigniew Bujak, Dariusz Gierczuk, Mirosław Zalech prepared the manuscript. Zbigniew Bujak, Dariusz Gierczuk, Mirosław Zalech secured the funding.
Funding: Departmental sources.
Conflict of interest: Authors have declared that no competing interest exists
Ethical approval: Not required
Provenance and peer review: Under responsibility of HMA Congress
Corresponding author: Zbigniew Bujak, University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Branch in Biała Podlaska, Akademicka 2, 21-500 Biała Podlaska; Poland; e-mail: bujakz[at]o2.pl
Open Access License: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial 4.0 International (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license