The conflicts in modernization of wushu ? By the case of Japanese Wushu Taijiquan Federation oppose the Rules for Wushu Taolu Competition

Chang Liu, Junichi Ikemoto, Fumiaki Shishida
Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan

Background and Study Aim: Wushu Taolu (????) means the routine performance in competitive Chinese martial arts. In 2003, the International Wushu Federation (IWUF) published the new version of Rules for Wushu Taolu Competition. The new rules approve difficulty and add music in performance, just like rhythmic gymnastics. Japanese Wushu Taijiquan Federation (JWTF), the second influential member in IWUF, insist the new rules raised the risk of injury and cannot be sufficiently represented the feature of wushu.
Material and Methods: This study analyzed related material including the official journal published by JWTF, main changes of the new rule, and the details of the proposed amendment draft by JWTF.
Results: JWTF disagree with the new rules in contents of difficulty. In back of this opposition lies that JWTF attaching importance to the combative aspect of martial arts.
Conclusions: The conflict of modernization of Wushu Taolu exists in the relationship of combative aspect and aesthetic aspect of martial arts. Japanese association solves this conflict by dividing Taolu into two parts: the Olympic style of Taolu and the original style of Taolu. But this kind of solution needs further researches.
Keywords: aesthetics ? body performance ? globalization ? localization

Published online: 17 September 2015
Copyright: ? 2015 the Authors. Published by Archives of Budo
Contributors: Chang Liu, Junichi Ikemoto, Fumiaki Shishida conceived the study design. Chang Liu collected the data. Chang Liu, Junichi Ikemoto analysed the data. Chang Liu prepared the manuscript. Chang Liu, Fumiaki Shishida secured the funding.
Funding: Departmental sources.
Conflict of interest: Authors have declared that no competing interest exists
Ethical approval: Not required
Provenance and peer review: Under responsibility of HMA Congress
Corresponding author: Fumiaki Shishida, Step 22 of Waseda University, 3-4-1 Higashi-fushimi, Nishi-Tokyo, 202-0021, Japan. e-mail: fuzanaoi[at]
Open Access License: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial 4.0 International (, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license