The effect of hand strengthening techniques in martial arts on bone mineral density ? pilot study

Michal Vít, Boleslav Galkaniewicz, Martin Bugala
Faculty of Sports Studies, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic

Background and Study Aim. Hand strengthening techniques were used in most traditional Asian martial arts as preparatory exercise for hardening of striking areas, as injury prevention and a method for developing powerful striking techniques. They were also used for passing knowledge and tradition down to other practitioners. According to the Wolff?s law, loading on a particular bone leads to remodelling of the bone overtime to become stronger and more resistant. The aim of the paper is the knowledge about the effect of 100-day lasting intervention programme of strengthening techniques on both hands of one tested person.
Material and Methods. For examination of the tested person three non-invasive methods were employed. X-ray apparatus, ultrasonography and densitometry were used for the description of physiological changes. Examination by X-ray, ultrasound and densitometer were conducted in a pre-test, during which the condition of the upper limbs before the workout was assessed. After completion of the intervention programme
a post-test was conducted in which the condition of the upper extremities after exercise was described, assessing the difference between measurements. Assessment was done by doctors working in the field of radiology.
Results. The research showed an increase in bone mineral density in both hands after the intervention (right upper limb with BMD increased by 2.1%, the left upper limb with BMD increased by 1.6%). A stronger effect in the right hand was traced.
Conclusion. The research could not be considered as final evidence but as a pilot study for further more in-depth investigation of health benefits of the strengthening techniques witch should be conducted with larger number of tested persons.
Key words: combative ? healthy lifestyle ? self-defence ? security ? sports

Published online: 17 September 2015
Copyright: ? 2015 the Authors. Published by Archives of Budo
Contributors: Michal Vít, Boleslav Galkaniewicz, Martin Bugala conceived the study design. Michal Vít, Boleslav Galkaniewicz collected the data. Michal Vít analysed the data. Michal Vít, Martin Bugala prepared the manuscript. Michal Vít, Boleslav Galkaniewicz, Martin Bugala secured the funding.
Funding: None
Conflict of interest: Authors have declared that no competing interest exists
Ethical approval: approved by the Local Ethical Committee
Provenance and peer review: Under responsibility of HMA Congress
Corresponding author: Michal Vít, Faculty of Sports Studies, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic; e-mail: vit[at]
Open Access License: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial 4.0 International (, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license